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How to Bake a Double-Crust Fruit Pie

An all-butter dough and a light touch give you the flakiest crust that’s perfectly balanced with the fruit filling

Capture the flavor of summer by baking a mix of fresh berries into a pie.

by Carolyn Weil

fromFine Cooking
Issue 46

Pies are hands-down my favorite dessert, but I would be hard-pressed to tell you which part of the pie I like best, the fruit filling or the crust. For some people, the choice is obvious, demonstrated by their plates scraped clean except for the neatly manicured crust edges pushed to the side. Or, as with my young daughter, by the sneak attacks she mounts on any stray chunks of crust sitting unprotected on our plates. When you get a pie right, however, you get a perfect balance of juicy, not-too-sweet fruit and buttery, flaky crust—making both parts of the pie irresistible.

While making a good fruit filling does take a little attention (and the right thickener), making the crust seems to be the part of the pie that inspires discomfort in many people. A double-crust pie needs a crust that’s easy to work with and that bakes into a very flaky, American-style crust, as opposed to a crumbly short crust that’s suitable for tarts. I’d like to help you feel comfortable making, shaping, baking—and eventually perfecting—this kind of crust.

Butter's better, as long as it's cold

One of the big debates concerning pie crust is what kind of fat to use. Shortening produces a tender and very flaky crust, but it lacks flavor. Some bakers say that a butter crust isn’t as flaky as a shortening crust, but I disagree—with the right methods, you can get great flakiness with butter. Besides, flake isn’t the only measure of a delicious crust. I always end any debate by asking, “Would you spread shortening on your toast? Then why use it to wrap around your pie?”

Since butter is key to this crust, choose a high-quality butter, one with a low water content. This generally means choosing a brand-name butter rather than a supermarket brand. The size of the butter chunk is critical. I like to have quite a few chunks in the dough that are at least pea-size. Big bits of butter translate into big flakes, as the moisture in the butter turns to steam and puffs up that section of pastry. If the butter pieces are too small, you may get a tender pastry, but one more crumbly than flaky. The temperature of the butter is really important, too. Make sure you use it right from the refrigerator (or pop it in the freezer for a few minutes if you’re working in a hot kitchen). Cold butter keeps the dough cool, which helps prevent the development of too much gluten in the flour. Just as important, cold butter stays solid longer in the heat of the oven. If the butter starts off too warm, it will immediately melt in the heat of the oven before it has a chance to do its flaky thing.

For great pie dough, start cold and keep moving
  • Cut your butter into the flour until it looks like this. The larger pieces are about 1/4 inch (pea-size) and the smaller pieces form a mealy texture with the flour.
  • Squeeze the butter to see if it’s cold enough. Pinch off some of the flour and butter and mold it into a square. Check your fingers—if they’re greasy, the butter’s too warm and your mixture needs 15-minutes’ chilling. If your fingers are dry, go ahead and add the water.
  • Add the water, and stop mixing while the texture is still shaggy. Don’t try to get the dough smooth at this stage, or you’ll develop too much tough gluten.
  • It may feel strange not to, but don’t chill the dough yet. Shape it into two disks and start rolling; you can chill the dough once the pie is assembled. This method is unconventional, but author Carolyn Weil says that ultimately you get the most tender result because you don’t have to struggle with a disk of chilled, hard dough.
  • Feel free to flour the surface, and slide that dough around. Having your dough stick is worse than using too much flour, most of which can be brushed off after rolling anyway. After every few strokes of the rolling pin, free the dough from the surface by sliding and turning it.
A stand mixer gives more control

I’m a little different from some bakers in that I prefer to use my stand mixer rather than a food processor to make pie dough. I find that the mixer allows me to complete the dough quickly with a minimum of mixing but still retain control of the dough’s consistency. I think the food processor tends to overwork the dough when mixing in the water, so if you want to give the processor a try, use it to cut in the butter, but then dump the flour into a bowl and mix in the water by hand.

Whichever method you use to make the dough, it’s important to check your butter and flour mixture to make sure it’s still very cold and malleable before you add the water to the dough. Here’s a good way to test. When the butter and flour mixture is blended to the desired “pea size,” quickly pull out a small amount and play with it. Is it firm? Can you mold it into a small cube without your fingers getting greasy? If so, your butter is still cold enough and you can proceed with adding the water. If the butter feels soft and your fingers look greasy, put the mixture—bowl and all—in the refrigerator for 15 to 20 minutes until the butter and flour pieces are firm again. This is a great tip to remember when you’re baking on hot summer days.

Rolling the dough right away means no struggle and a tender texture

The next step in my process may seem like heresy to some experienced pie-makers, but trust me, it works beautifully. Once you’ve added the water to your dough, most recipes have you shape the dough into a disk and then refrigerate it for a period, in order for the butter to get firm again and the gluten in the dough relax. This is all well and good, except than now you’re left with a disk of very hard, chilled dough that will take so much muscle to become malleable enough to roll (we’ve all seen bakers banging their disks with a rolling pin) that the dough gets overworked and tends to crack. I find that rolling out the dough, shaping the pie, and chilling the assembled pie for 15 to 20 minutes before baking produces the perfect texture. But if the dough rounds seems to be getting limp or greasy as you’re working, you can just pop them into the refrigerator (on a piece of parchment or a baking sheet) until they’re cool enough to work with again.

Seven habits of highly successful fruit pies

Here are seven pointers that all add up to perfect pie. I also advise making a double batch of the dough and stashing two disks in the freezer so you can easily put together a pie.

1. Use a metal pie pan. The heat penetrates faster and therefore the bottom crust has a better chance of browning. But be aware that the bottom crust of a double-crust pie will never be crisp—how could it be, sitting under six cups of-juicy fruit?

2. Use a template to cut nicely round dough circles. Carolyn uses cardboard cake circles, but a pot lid works well, too.

3. Always add a pinch of salt to your fruit fillings. It makes the fruit fruitier and the sweetness sweeter.

4. Don’t overfill the pie. It’s tempting to pile on the berries, but more fruit releases more juices, and if the level of fruit and juices is higher than the rim of the pan, the juices will leak and spill over.

5. Chill the filled pie for 20 minutes before baking. This lets the butter in the dough set up and the starch in the thickeners start to absorb liquid and swell, so they’ll perform better in the oven.

6. Watch the bubbles to see when the pie’s done. Juices will probably bubble out of the slits during the latter part of baking. At first the bubbles will be fast, indicating thin juices, but later they’ll get lazy and slow, meaning the juices have thickened and the pie is done.

7. Cool the pie completely before slicing. It’s tempting to dig right in, but a hot pie will be liquid inside. You need to let the pie come to room temperature so that the juices can set up and cloak the berries properly. The ideal serving method is to cool the pie and then gently heat a slice in the oven to get the butter in the crust warm and toasty.

Thickening the juices means more flavor in every bite
Thick, glossy juices mean the pie is ready. During cooking, the fruit renders its juices, which get thickened by some starch and by reducing in the oven. Photo: Scott Phillips

As fresh fruit cooks in a pie, it releases lots of juices—delicious but thin juices that, if not thickened somehow, will make the crust soggy and pool up on the plate.

Some cooks use flour to bind and thicken the juices, but I find that the texture can be a bit gritty and that the flour turns the juices slightly cloudy. I prefer to use a mix of cornstarch and quick-cooking tapioca, which both set clear when fully cooked and cooled. Using all cornstarch would make the filling gummy, and all tapioca would make it seem dry, but the two balance each other. The cornstarch thickens the juices, while the tapioca adds texture without making the filling too gummy. If the texture of the tapioca is too pronounced, next time try grinding it to a powder in the food processor first.

Create a pie that's both pretty and well engineered
  • Use two hands, fingers wide apart for easy lifting that won’t stretch or tear the dough.
  • By first folding the round of dough in half you can easily gauge where to position it on the filling.
  • Make a strong seal by pressing the two layers of dough together before you begin to fold. The top layer will extend farther than the bottom one.
  • Get a thick, uniform edge by folding the top layer over the bottom one. This double edge will shape up into a pretty flute that will contain the fruit juices during cooking.
  • Lift up a section of dough and press down on either side to make a graceful vertical flute. The shape will settle down a bit during cooking but will still look nice.
  • Cut some vents to let off steam. The steam created from the moist fruit during baking needs somewhere to go, so give it an easy escape to avoid unexpected holes and leaks.

Photos except where noted: Martha Holmberg

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