Put the yeast, the sugar, and 1 cup of the water into a large bowl and set sit for 5 to 10 minutes, until the yeast dissolves and the liquid appears creamy. Add the remaining water and 1-1/2 to 2 cups of flour, including the whole wheat or rye flour. Beat well (about 100 strokes), and then let it stand for 10 to 15 minutes, until the mixture swells and becomes bubbly. Add the salt and the olive oil, then stir in the remaining flour 1 cup at a time until the dough is stiff but still slightly sticky. Turn out onto a lightly floured surface and let rest while you clean and oil the bowl. Knead the dough until it is smooth, springy, and pliant. This should take about 5 to 8 minutes. Return the dough to the oiled bowl, cover with a damp cloth, and let rise until doubled. Rising generally taken 35 to 45 minutes at 70°F.