Make a savory lamb broth:
In a large bowl, combine 1/2 cup of the olive oil with the onions, spices, salt, and garlic; mix well.
Heat the remaining 3 Tbs. olive oil in a stockpot over medium-high heat. Season the shanks with salt and pepper and brown them on all sides (in batches, if necessary). Reduce the heat to medium and add the seasoned onion mixture, stirring occasionally, until the spices release their flavors and aromas, about 5 minutes.
Add the tomatoes, turnips, and red pepper, stir to coat, and cook until the tomatoes are soft, 5 to 8 minutes. Add the bay leaf and tied herbs and then add water to cover by 1 inch (10 to 12 cups). Cover the pot and bring to a boil. Lower the heat to a simmer and cook, stirring occasionally, until the lamb pulls off the bone easily, 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 hours. Transfer the lamb to a platter and cover with foil. Continue simmering the broth until it’s full-flavored and reduced to about 8 cups. Taste and add salt and pepper as necessary. Discard the tied herbs, bay leaf, and cinnamon stick. Spoon off the fat that collects on the surface.
Make the harissa:
Coarsely chop the roasted peppers and put them in a blender. Add the chiles (but not the seeds), garlic, cumin, coriander, and salt. With the blender running, pour in the olive oil in a stream until the mixture becomes smooth, about 30 seconds. Transfer the harissa to a bowl and stir in the chile seeds.
Prepare to steam the couscous:
In a medium bowl, mix the flour and water to make a thin paste; set aside. Cut a three-inch-wide strip of cheesecloth long enough to wrap twice around the rim of your couscoussière (a colander that rests snugly over a stockpot can stand in for a couscoussière).
Put the couscous in a very large bowl or a roasting pan. Cover the grains with cold water, swishing to remove the starch. Drain immediately. Let the couscous rest for 5 minutes.
Meanwhile, make the seasoned water by mixing the oil, saffron, turmeric, cumin, salt, pepper, and 3 cups of water. Fill the stockpot (or the couscoussière) with 2 inches of plain water (which shouldn’t touch the bottom of the colander); bring to a boil.
As the plain water is heating up, scoop up some of the couscous with your hands and rub the grains together lightly to separate them and break up any lumps. The couscous will feel dry. Sprinkle on a bit of the seasoned water and continue to separate and fluff the couscous with your hands, letting the grains rub against one another and dribble back into the bowl. Sprinkle on a bit more of the liquid and continue rubbing so the couscous starts to feel moist but not wet (no liquid should accumulate in the bowl); you’ll use about 1/2 cup of the liquid.
Steam and fluff the couscous:
Set the colander over the simmering water. Sprinkle the couscous into the colander (or the couscoussière steamer) without pressing on the grains.
Wet the long strip of cheesecloth, then dip it in the flour-water paste. Wrap the soaked cheesecloth twice around the gap between the colander and the stockpot to seal. Cook until steam appears through the entire surface of the couscous, 10 to 20 minutes.
While the couscous is steaming, heat the olive oil in a skillet on medium high. Add the sliced onions, cinnamon, pepper, salt, sugar, and raisins. Cook, stirring occasionally, until the onions are soft and caramelized, about 20 minutes; set aside.
Reduce the heat on the couscoussière to very low. Carefully unwrap the hot cheesecloth strip. Dump the couscous into the large bowl; break up clumps with a spoon. When the couscous is cool enough to handle, fluff again as described above, moistening it gradually with about 1 cup of the liquid. Repeat the steaming and fluffing a second time.
As the couscous steams for the second time, bring the lamb broth back to a boil and add the carrots, sweet potato, and squash. Simmer for 10 minutes and then add the cabbage and eggplant. Simmer the vegetables for another 10 minutes. Meanwhile, pull the lamb meat off the shanks, discarding the fat and bones. Cut the lamb into bite-size pieces. Add the zucchini to the broth and simmer until all the vegetables are tender, about 10 minutes more. Return the lamb to the broth to moisten and reheat it. Taste and add salt and pepper, if needed.
To finish the dish:
After fluffing the couscous a second time, return it to the couscoussière and steam for a third and final time. Dump the couscous into the large bowl or pan and break up clumps with a spoon. Stir in the chickpeas, raisins, cinnamon, and butter. When the couscous is cool enough to touch, moisten and season the grains with about 1 cup of the lamb broth, using the same rubbing technique as before.
Heap the couscous on a platter. Clear a hole in the center by pushing the grains toward the perimeter. With a slotted spoon, arrange the lamb and vegetables in the center, leaving some of them in the broth. Serve with the harissa, the caramelized onions, and individual bowls of broth, which people can sprinkle on their couscous to their taste.
nutrition information (per serving):
based on ten servings;
Photo: Ben Fink