Spread the beans out and pick through them, discarding any rocks, bits of debris, and shriveled beans. Rinse the beans under cold water to remove any dust or dirt. Put the beans in a large metal bowl with enough cool water to cover by about 3 inches. Soak at room temperature for 6 to 8 hours, adding more water if the level gets low. To see if the beans have soaked long enough, cut one in half. It should be the same color at its center as it is at the edge. Drain and rinse.
Tip:A long soak is the best way to ensure even cooking of the beans, but if you're short on time, you can do a quick soak in lieu of the step above: Put the beans in a large pot with enough cool water to cover by about 3 inches. Bring to a boil; boil for 2 minutes. Remove from the heat, cover, and let stand for 1 to 2 hours. Drain and rinse.
Put the beans in a 6-quart Dutch oven. Add 2 quarts cool water, or enough to cover the beans by about 3/4 inch. Bring just to a boil over medium-high heat, reduce the heat to maintain a gentle simmer, and cook, partially covered, stirring occasionally and adding hot water if necessary to keep the beans submerged, until they begin to soften, about 30 minutes.
Meanwhile, heat the oil in a 12-inch nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Add the sausage and cook, stirring often, until browned, about 4 minutes. Stir in the celery, scallions, bell pepper, onion, 1/2 cup of the parsley, the bay leaf, thyme, 1 tsp. salt, and 1/4 tsp. pepper and cook, stirring often, until the vegetables are softened, about 5 minutes. Add the garlic and cook, stirring constantly, until fragrant, about 1 minute.
Add the sausage mixture to the beans and return to a simmer. Continue to simmer, stirring often, until the beans are very tender and the liquid is very thick, about 40 minutes.
Meanwhile, bring 4 cups water to a boil in a heavy-duty 3-quart saucepan over high heat. Add the rice and 1-1/2 tsp. salt, stir once, reduce the heat to low and simmer, covered, until the rice is tender and the liquid is absorbed, about 20 minutes
Discard the bay leaf from the beans, stir in the remaining 1/2 cup parsley, and season to taste with salt and hot pepper sauce. Serve the beans over the rice, with the hot pepper sauce and pickled jalapeños with their liquid on the side.
The beans can be cooked up to 2 days ahead. Tightly cover and refrigerate. Gently reheat while cooking the rice, and then finish with the parsley and hot sauce.