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Put Color and Shine on Pastry Crust with an Egg Wash

Fine Cooking Issue 37
Photo: Judi Rutz
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Just before sliding puff pastry, pâte à choux, a double-crusted pie, or a loaf of bread into the oven, most bakers brush the top of the pastry with an egg wash. The term egg wash simply means an egg, or a part of an egg, that has been thinned with a bit of water, milk, or cream and is used to promote browning or to create a glossy shine, or both. How brown or shiny the crust becomes depends on the makeup of the egg wash (see the chart, below).

The protein and fat in an egg cause different effects. Protein promotes browning, while the fat in the yolk gives crusts a nice shine. Since there is protein in both the yolk and the white, any whole egg or yolk will make the crust both shiny and brown. The white, on the other hand, will only promote browning without contributing any significant gloss to the crust.

Egg washes may contain water, milk, or cream, and sometimes salt. Since the best-looking pastries are made by applying a thin, even coat of egg wash, adding a little liquid (1 tablespoon per egg, or 1/2 tablespoon per yolk or white) will help thin it and make it easier to brush.

Besides diluting the egg, milk or cream will also affect the final appearance. Since milk is mostly protein, it will increase the browning when added to an egg yolk. Milk has little effect when added to whites or whole eggs since the protein content is already relatively high. Cream, on the other hand will increase the gloss of the crust because of its high fat content.

Some chefs like to add salt (a scant 1/8 tsp. per egg) to an egg wash because it breaks down the proteins and thins the white, making it easier to brush on. Keep in mind that you must wait a minute or two for the salt to become effective.

The best tool for applying an egg wash is a natural bristle pastry brush. Keep it clean by washing it immediately after use; don’t let egg dry in the bristles. When applying an egg wash to puff pastry or other flaky dough that’s meant to rise in the oven, be careful not to let the glaze run over the sides or it will, in effect, glue the flaky layers together and prevent them from rising.

Likewise, if you’re planning to score the surface of a loaf of bread or pastry, first brush on the egg wash, and then score the dough so the egg wash doesn’t drip into the score marks and seal them closed.

Customize egg washes for varied effects

Content of egg wash Effect on cooked pastry
whole egg with water nicely browned, slightly glossy
whole egg with milk nicely browned, more glossy
egg white only evenly browned, slightly less brown than whole egg, very little shine
egg yolk only or egg yolk with water browned and shiny, but less so than with cream or milk
egg yolk with cream very browned and glossy, but a relatively thick egg wash that’s somewhat difficult to spread neatly
egg yolk with milk the darkest brown crust and a touch less shiny than  yolk with cream


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  • SilverKat_55 | 10/31/2018

    This was a great help! I was glad to read how an egg wash contributes to the pastry's appearance - in terms of browning and gloss. Do you know the effects of an egg wash on savoury pastry, in terms of flavour and texture though? This would be useful to me - many thanks

  • L.P. | 02/04/2018

    Beautiful! Pies without an egg wash are outdated, dry, and look terrible. Why not make your pies look and taste their best. Thanks for the tips.

  • Kimchiman | 10/12/2017

    Why ruin a perfectly good pie crust by putting egg on it? Am I the only person on the planet who prefers my pie crusts the old fashioned way?

    When I was young, I never saw egg wash on pie crusts. Seems to me it wasn't until some time in the 80s that the unfortunate idea caught on, and pies haven't been the same since.

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